H. F. Guggenheim Foundation
Mason Welch Gross: First President
( Ex President of Rutgers)
Harry Frank Guggenheim
H. F. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION: Man's Relation to Man Program
Activities as Director of Research with Lionel Tiger 1972-84
As well as the administration of the Foundation's research support program, which involved the solicitation, initiation,
assessment, supervision and evaluation of some 180 research grants (see Foundation quinquennial reports for details),
we organized or co-organized the following international conferences and symposia, supported wholly or in part by the Foundation:
Aggression and Violence (Stanhope Hotel, New York City, l972)
Female Hierarchies (New York City, 1974). Published as
Female Hierarchies, Lionel Tiger and Heather Fowler eds. (1978)
Human Ethology and Social Anthroplogy (Special Session of the
decennial meeting of the Association of Social Anthroplogists
of the Commonwealth, Rhodes House, Oxford University, 1974)
(Published as Biosocial Anthropology, R. Fox ed., q. v. under "Publications/Books"
with a critical chapter by W. D. Hamilton.)
Brain and Behavior (New York State, 1976)
Origins and Evolution of Language and Speech (New York Academy of Sciences, NYC 1975)
(Published as Origins and Evolution of Language and Speech, 914 pp. N. Y. Academy of Sciences,
eds. Stevan Harnad, H. D. Steklis and Jane Lancaster, 1976)
Evolution and Lateralization of the Brain (New York Academy of Sciences, NYC, 1975.
(Published as Evolution and Lateralization of the Brain, 501 pp., N. Y. Acad. of Sciences,
eds. David Blizard and Stuart J. Dimond, 1977)
Kin Selection and Kinship Theory (Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris, 1978)
Organized with Prof. Irven DeVore of Harvard University
Modernization and Human Nature (In cooperation with the Nobel
Foundation and the Rockefeller Bros. Foundation, Ulriksdal
Palace, Stockholm, 1978)
Neonate and Infant Cognition (Rockefeller University, New York City, 1980)
(Published as Neonate Cognition: Beyond the buzzing, blooming confusion.
Jacques Mehler and Robin Fox eds, q. v. under "Publications/Books")
Early Grant Recipients - Now Prominent
Presidential Medal of Freedom
President Carnegie Foundation
President National Institute of Medicine etc
Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences
The Tangled Wing, !Kung San (Bushmen)
The Evolution of Childhood
Trivers receives the Crafoord Prize from
Queen Sylvia of Sweden
Edward O. Wilson
Richard Dawkins FRS
Crafoord Prize of the Royal
Napoleon Chagnon is decorated by a
Behave. WSJ columnist
Jane Goodall and friend
Desmond Morris and Friend
Alex the African grey parrot (RIP):
Nim Chimpsky (RIP)
who collaborated with Terrace and Bever
Chagnon and Fox have lunch.
Washington DC (NAS 2014)
Tiger and Fox
Bachrach The Conduit
with the indispensable assistance of Karyl Roosevelt, Karen Colvard
and the Foundation staff,
and the pretty remarkable Board who supported and indulged us throughout , including:
Peter Lawson-Johnston, Chairman, Harry's heir; Henry Allan Moe, former president of The American Philosophical Society; Roger Strauss of Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, publishers; James Edwards, Governor of North Carolina (where the Guggenheims had property; General James Doolittle (see above); William Baker, director of Bell Labs; General James ('the bridge at Nijmhagen') Gavin; G. Edward Pendray, who launched the first liquid fuel rocket (on Staten Island) and with Goddard helped create the U.S. Space Program (NASA).
GRANTS & PROJECTS
Below is a small sample from the grantees and projects 1972-78 to give an idea of the range of the program and people involved.
Norman Alcock A Study of Civil War
Jerome Barchas Hormones and Status as Related to Aggressive behavior
Nicholas Blurton Jones Aggressive Behavior in Children
Napoleon Chagnon Population Expansion and Group Selection in SA Population
Michael Chance Attention Structure and the Control of Aggression in Macaques
Ivan Chase Behavioral Mechanisms in Hierarchy Formation
Martin Daly Family Violence from a Biological Perspective
Irven DeVore Dominance, Aggression and Conflict Resolution: Primates and Humans
Mildred Dickeman Marital Status and Reproductive Success in Humans
Paul Ekman Facial Expressions and Human Emotions
Frank Ervin Aggression and Dominance in St Kitts Vervets
Michael McGuire East African and St Kitts Vervets; Comparative Field Study
Daniel Freedman Peer Influences in Sex-Segregated and sex-Integrated Groups of Children
Jane Goodall Behavioral and Hormonal Changes in Adolescent Chimpanzees
& David Hamburg " " " " " "
William Irons Social Behavior as Biological Adaptation: Tribal Persia
Daniel Kahneman Intuitive Components in Systematic Approaches to Forecasting and Policy Analysis
& Amos Tversky " " " " " " " "
Melvin Konner Behavioral Biology of African Hunters: !Kung San Bushmen
& Marjorie Shostak " " " "
Robert J Lifton Death Imagery and Violence
Alexander Marshack Symbolism of the Images of Killing and Weapons in the First Homo sapiens Culture
Allan Mazur Testosterone and Status in Small Groups
Jacques Mehler Communicative Dispositions in the Newborn Infant
Patricia Moehlman Social Interactions in Jackal Families: Implications for Kin Selection
Desmond Morris Gesture Maps: The Distribution of Human Gestures in Europe
A E Pusey Incest Avoidance in Japanese Macaques/ Sociobiology of Lions
& Craig Packer " " " " " " " "
D E Redmond Enzyme Genetic Factors in Agonistic and Social Affiliative Behavior in Primates
Donald Symons Aggressive Play Among Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys
H S Terrace Emotional and Social Behavior and Language in an Infant Chimpanzee (Nim Chimpsky)
& T G Bever " " " " " " " " "
Robert Trivers Aggressive Tendencies in Man/ A Biological Theory of the Family/
Natural Selection and Social Theory/ Kin-Directed behavior in Hunting Dogs/
Haplodiploidy and the Evolution of the Social Insects
& Hope Hare " " " " " " " "
Beatrice Whiting Aggressive Behavior of Children in Kenya
Sherwood Washburn Experimental Material in the Anatomy of Aggression
Jonathan Winson Phylogenetic Basis of Violence in Dreaming
Richard Dawkins Aggressive Behavior in Ground-Dwelling Wasps
Robert Sapolsky Stress, Cortisol, Testosterone and Dominance Rank in Olive Baboons
1978-84 (Some of the above grants carried over)
Jeanne Altmann Behavioral Coordination and Cooperation in Mother and Infant Yellow Baboons
David Barash Male-male and Female-female Competition in Hoary Marmots
Brian Bertram Vulture Culture: Tool Use Behavior of Egyptian Vultures
Christopher Boehm Biological Bases of Political Egalitarianism
Hilary Callan Uncertainty and Decision in Biological and Social Systems
Napoleon Chagnon Adaptive Features of Cross-cousin Marriage among the Yanomamo Indians of Venezuela
Ivan Chase Dynamics of Hierarchy Formation in Young Children
James Chisholm Prenatal Biosocial Influences on the Behavior of Aboriginal and White Australian Children
John H. Crook Socio-ecological Adaptations of Farmers (Polyandry) in Zanskar-Himalaya, India
& Robert Attenborough " " " " " " " " " "
Martin Daly Family Violence and Risk Taking from a Biological Perspective
Raymond Hames Bio-social Determinants of Interaction among the Ye'kwana and Yanonamo Indians
Clifford Jolly Field Study of a Pair-bonded Primate
Patricia Goldman-Rakic Functional Analysis of Modular Architecture in the Primate Pre-frontal Cortex
James Gould Cognitive Ethology of Honeybees
Donald R. Griffin Cognitive Ethology and Animal Consciousness
Wayde C. Mackey Consistencies and Variations in Adult Male-Child Proxemics Across Cultures
Peter Marsh Expression and Social Management of Aggression
Irene Pepperberg Psittacine (Parrot) Model for Studies on Social and Communicative Behavior
Stanley Rothman Styles in Social Leadership in National Elites
Jon P. Rood Socioecology of the Dwarf Mongoose
Robert M. Seyfarth Social Behavior and Symbolic Communication Among Vervet Monkeys
& Dorothy Cheney Seyfarth " " " " " " " "
Edward O. Wilson Theory of Gene-Culture Co-evolution
Some 450 publications based on Foundation research (books, articles, reports, chapters etc) had appeared by 1982. More came later.
Under the able guidance of Karen Colvard the Foundation continues to support an ambitious range of mainly social science research.
For an excellent account of the origins and development of the evolution-and-behavior movement in the Cold War years and the role played by Tiger and Fox and the H. F. G. Foundation, see Erika Lorraine Milam, Creatures of Cain: The Hunt for Human Nature in Cold War America. Princeton University Press, 2019.
From pp 241-2 " As research directors of the HFGF until 1984, Fox and Tiger successfully created a space in which investigations of the human animal, especially as related to violence and dominance, could be supported and sustained. Without the funding Fox and Tiger provided to the burgeoning field of sociobiology, many of the scientists they supported might have focused on different questions and approaches for which they were able to obtain funds from other sources. Even scientists like Wilson, DeVore and Trivers could not transform the study of animal and human behavior in the United States without the help of insiders with financial resources at their disposal, insiders like Fox and Tiger. The HFGF thus funded American research at the intersection of ethology and biological anthropology at a crucial moment in the crystallization of sociobiology as a discipline."